1. This is part of the Spain Series of the Alan Lomax Collection issued by Rounder Records, information at http://www.rounder.com.
2. Subsequent to Lomax, Manuel García-Matos made field recordings which he included in his Magna Antología del Folklore Musical de España (red. 2003) Some 1948 recordings made by Vicent Pujol and Pep Xica , two 45rpm vinyl discs appeared in the 1960s; and Josep Crivillé i Bargalló recorded seven hours of material in the late 1970s, with the help of Esperança Bonet Roig. At the time of writing, the originals of these recordings have disappeared, leaving about one hour of material selected at the time for a recording which never materialized. We have recently arranged for third-generation copies to be sent to the Ibizan Sound Archive, and are trying to locate the original tapes. From that decade on, a few Ibizan and Formenteran singers, musicologists, and musicology students have been carrying out fieldwork and research (Xico and Vicent Bufi, Jaume Escandell Guasch, Catalina Marí, Joan Marí “Moreno”, Vicent Marí, Francesc Torres Peters, Gilberto Tur). There is one important unpublished study by a lighthouse keeper who worked in Formentera, Javier Pérez Arévalo. Published studies reflect the work listed above, as well as the important work of Baltasar Samper (1928/1998); a few by García-Matos, an article by Crivillé about his field trip, a brief monograph by Isidor Marí, and a scattering of articles, mostly in local publications. The most important collections are those of Samper and Macabich, with musical transcriptions; Samper talks about having recorded on wax cylinders (in Massot: 32), though to our knowledge these have not been recovered. In the 1930s, up till the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, the American writer Elliot Paul collected, sang, and arranged several local songs, and describes accordionists and other musicians in the small town of Santa Eulària, but his original collection, if it exists, has so far been impossible to locate. Surprisingly, the major volume on Catalan, Valencian and Balearic traditional music (Aviñoa) barely mentions the Pitiüses, though it offers entire sections on Mallorca and Minorca.
3. We are working on a study partly sponsored by the Consell Insular d’Eivissa i Formentera, and Sa Nostra, which includes all these aspects of music in the Pitiüses Islands. The discothèque/related fieldwork is being carried out by Tamar Cohen Adams and Josué García (see bibliography); Bennett’s study is very vague and general.
4. This study was reported in http://www.elmundo-eldia.com/2004/10/09/illes_balears/1097272806.html
5. The descendants of the Jews expelled from Spain at the end of the 15th century in many cases are aware of their identities and were not persecuted in Ibiza, but do not have any different musical traditions. The only article which purports to discuss Jewish folklore and music in Ibiza is confused enough that we have not included it in the bibliography. Among other things, the author, who elsewhere has published some useful work on the history of Jews in the Pityusan Islands, confuses the Jews’ harp (jaws harp), in Ibiza known as “bimbau”, with the stringed harp played by King David in the Old Testament, then claims it as “proof” of Jewish music origins. (Gloria Mound, “Continuing Jewish Customs and Folklore in Ibiza and Formentera”, Acts of the 11th World Congress of Jewish Studies, Jerusalem 1995:Vol.II:7-16)
6. Navarro calls the redoblat “melancolicos trinos” which, he observes, often interrupt the meaning” (46)
7. Navarro, in the late nineteenth century, described the words as “aunque bastante incorrecta en la forma....profunda melancolia, ternura exquisita, resignación puramente cristiana...marcadísimo carácter local”. (p45).
8. All text transcriptions for Ibiza and Formentera: Esperança Bonet Roig, with the collaboration of Jaume Escandell, Francesc Torres i Peters, and Isidor Mayans; translations by Judith Cohen.
9. text in Torres Torres 2004:78-81. A mid-nineteenth century version is transcribed by the Archduke Salvador:47-49
10. The bawdier version substitutes the phrase “a tocar es xoriguer”, “to touch the penis” for “a vore el vapor com ve”, “to see the ship coming in”. Both versions appear in a collection of pre-school songs apparently collected from the pre-schoolers themselves but instead of “a tocar” the phrase reads “i es toquen” (Students of…p50).
11. We would like to thank Francisco Torres i Peters for bringing this recording to our attention and providing us with a study copy.
12. See also entries in Aviñoa, unavailable when this paper was in preparation.
13. The Mozarabic attribution is doubtful, possibly part of the Romantic orientalism disseminated by such authors as Alcover, Moll, Massot i Planes and Samper.